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Python 3.11.0

Release Date: Oct. 24, 2022

Python 3.11 release logo

This is the stable release of Python 3.11.0

Python 3.11.0 is the newest major release of the Python programming language, and it contains many new features and optimizations.

Major new features of the 3.11 series, compared to 3.10

Some of the new major new features and changes in Python 3.11 are:

General changes

  • PEP 657 -- Include Fine-Grained Error Locations in Tracebacks
  • PEP 654 -- Exception Groups and except*
  • PEP 680 -- tomllib: Support for Parsing TOML in the Standard Library
  • gh-90908 -- Introduce task groups to asyncio
  • gh-34627 -- Atomic grouping ((?>...)) and possessive quantifiers (*+, ++, ?+, {m,n}+) are now supported in regular expressions.
  • The Faster CPython Project is already yielding some exciting results. Python 3.11 is up to 10-60% faster than Python 3.10. On average, we measured a 1.22x speedup on the standard benchmark suite. See Faster CPython for details.

Typing and typing language changes

  • PEP 673 -- Self Type
  • PEP 646 -- Variadic Generics
  • PEP 675 -- Arbitrary Literal String Type
  • PEP 655 -- Marking individual TypedDict items as required or potentially-missing
  • PEP 681 -- Data Class Transforms

More resources

And now for something completely different

When a spherical non-rotating body of a critical radius collapses under its own gravitation under general relativity, theory suggests it will collapse to a single point. This is not the case with a rotating black hole (a Kerr black hole). With a fluid rotating body, its distribution of mass is not spherical (it shows an equatorial bulge), and it has angular momentum. Since a point cannot support rotation or angular momentum in classical physics (general relativity being a classical theory), the minimal shape of the singularity that can support these properties is instead a ring with zero thickness but non-zero radius, and this is referred to as a ringularity or Kerr singularity.

This kind of singularity has the following peculiar property. The spacetime allows a geodesic curve (describing the movement of observers and photons in spacetime) to pass through the center of this ring singularity. The region beyond permits closed time-like curves. Since the trajectory of observers and particles in general relativity are described by time-like curves, it is possible for observers in this region to return to their past. This interior solution is not likely to be physical and is considered a purely mathematical artefact.

There are some other interesting free-fall trajectories. For example, there is a point in the axis of symmetry that has the property that if an observer is below this point, the pull from the singularity will force the observer to pass through the middle of the ring singularity to the region with closed time-like curves and it will experience repulsive gravity that will push it back to the original region, but then it will experience the pull from the singularity again and will repeat this process forever. This is, of course, only if the extreme gravity doesn’t destroy the observer first.

Full Changelog

Files

Version Operating System Description MD5 Sum File Size GPG Sigstore
Gzipped source tarball Source release c5f77f1ea256dc5bdb0897eeb4d35bb0 26333656 SIG CRT SIG
XZ compressed source tarball Source release fe92acfa0db9b9f5044958edb451d463 19819768 SIG CRT SIG
macOS 64-bit universal2 installer macOS for macOS 10.9 and later 98fa94815780c9330fc2154559365834 42602603 SIG CRT SIG
Windows embeddable package (32-bit) Windows 0888959642cc8af087d88da3866490a5 9560053 SIG CRT SIG
Windows embeddable package (64-bit) Windows 7df0f4244e5a66760b7caaed58e86c93 10545380 SIG CRT SIG
Windows embeddable package (ARM64) Windows e3dbbd5d63c6cb203adc6c0c8ca5f5f7 9765886 SIG CRT SIG
Windows installer (32-bit) Windows e369a267acaad62487223bd835279bb9 23987136 SIG CRT SIG
Windows installer (64-bit) Windows Recommended 4fe11b2b0bb0c744cf74aff537f7cd7f 25157416 SIG CRT SIG
Windows installer (ARM64) Windows Experimental 18e5bd9a4854109adf3b77c7c9dc1ded 24289144 SIG CRT SIG